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Saturday, February 28, 2009

Speech Recognition – Future control of Techera

Justify FullSpeech Recognition – Future control of Techera
Now a days the controlling of appliances like tools, robotics, toys, computers and household appliances ( VCRs, TVs etc.) are done either direct switch control or remote controls. But this scenario is going to change in future where control of all these appliances or possible by voice control using Speech recognition circuits. In this novel control, these devices is trained or programmed to recognize the words like ON, OFF, Turn right, Turn left & so on.
To control and command an appliance (computer, VCR, TV security system, etc.) by speaking to it, will make it easier, while increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of working with that device. At the same time, we can work with other devices as a parallel tasks (i.e. hands and eyes are busy elsewhere).Readymade Chips are available in the market which can be used to embed with control circuits for recognition of devices.
Hardware approach:
On such circuit is the use of HM2007 speech recognition integrated circuit. The chip provides the options of recognizing either forty .96 second words or twenty 1.92 second words. This circuit allows the user to choose either the .96 second word length (40 word vocabulary) or the 1.92 second word length (20 word vocabulary). For memory the circuit uses an 8K X 8 static RAM.
The chip has two operational modes; manual mode and CPU mode. The CPU mode is designed to allow the chip to work under a host computer. This is an attractive approach to speech recognition for computers because the speech recognition chip operates as a co-processor to the main CPU. The jobs of listening and recognition doesn't occupying any of the computer's CPU time. When the HM2007 recognizes a command it can signal an interrupt to the host CPU and then relay the command code. The HM2007 chip can be cascaded to provide a larger word recognition library.
Some of Applications of this circuit:
• Command and control of appliances and equipment
• Telephone assistance systems
• Data entry
• Speech controlled toys
• Speech and voice recognition security systems

Software Approach
Currently most speech recognition systems available today are programs that use personal computers. The add on programs operate continuously in the background of the computers operating system (windows, OS/2, etc.). These programs require the computer to be equipped with a compatible sound card. The disadvantage in this approach is the necessity of a computer. While these speech programs are impressive, it is not economically viable for manufacturers to add full blown computer systems to control a washing machine or VCR. At best the programs add to the processing required of the computer's CPU. There is a noticeable slow down in the operation and function of the computer when voice recognition is enabled.
Courtesy: (article section)

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

HealthCare of the life of your precious personal computer

HealthCare of the life of your precious personal computer
Most of the time we spent with time. It has become part and parcel of our life. Do we care about our computer and its health? Generally desktop PCs and Notebook PCs generate heat that can be harmful due to power consumption of internal components like processors and video cards. This may reduce the performance (e.g. slowing processing) of PCs. Sometimes the PC fails to function. We should take adequate care in cooling PCs. Normally Cooling fans with heat sinks (long fins) are provided along with processors, RAMs & so on. The cooling system should be perfectly maintained in order to avoid overheating and possible damage. I would like to share some of the tips on free airflow inside the Personal computers
Keep Cables Neat - the cables inside your computer can become a block to proper airflow, so be sure they are organized so that they do not restrict airflow.Thermograph of Processor board inside PC
Dust - accumulating dust inside your PC can be deadly. It acts to insulate the devices it covers, keeping heat in, plus dust clogged fans and vents restrict the amount of airflow possible. Keep your PC blown out and dusted regularly.
Fans - periodically check your PC's fans to make sure they are working effectively. Fans can fail, resulting in significant reductions in airflow - in some systems a single fan failure can be enough to damage your PC.Air Circulation & Perfect Cooling system in PC
Covers On Tight - your PC's chassis was designed for proper internal airflow across the various components. However, if your PC's enclosure is open, this then dramatically changes the cooling dynamic. It can reduce or eliminate cooling of some components altogether, so make sure the case's cover in on tight.

Sunday, February 22, 2009

iPoint 3D – A novel technology for remote control

iPoint 3D – A novel technology for remote control
iPoint 3D is a novel communication platform for people to communicate with a 3-D display through simple gestures - without touching it and without 3-D glasses or a data glove. It just requires users to mover their hands in the air to do a variety of tasks-such as switching on the light, turning the stove on/off, and viewing any image from all angles
It is a recognition device which is not much larger than a keyboard; it can be suspended from the ceiling above the user or integrated in a coffee table. Its two built-in cameras detect hands and fingers in real time and transmit the information to a computer," said Paul Chojecki, a research scientist at the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, HHI, explaining the technology.
The device is also equipped with two FireWire cameras, which are inexpensive. The off-the-shelf video cameras that are easy to install.
The iPoint 3D can also be useful in a living room or office, or even in a hospital operating room, or as part of an interactive information system.
"Since the interaction is entirely contactless, the system is ideal for scenarios where contact between the user and the system is not possible or not allowed, such as in an operating room," said Chojecki.
The Berlin researchers will be presenting the iPoint 3D at CeBIT, the trade fair for information and communication technologies, in Hanover from March 3-8.
This novel system would be the remote control of the future and can replace the conventional touch screen systems

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Fingerprint sensors

Fingerprint sensors
I have been discussing on fingerprint authentication system. There are different types of fingerprint sensors used for Fingerprint authentication

Static capacitive Type 1 & 2
Dynamic capacitive
Luminescent capacitive
Optical reflexive
Optical transmissive with fiber optic plate
Optical contactless
Acoustic (ultrasound)
Pressure sensitive
Thermal line
Capacitive and optical line
The main features of all these fingerprint sensors are to try to generate a digital picture of the finger surface. This picture normally has a pixel resolution of 500 dpi. The picture generation can be different for every type of sensor. The various types of fingerprint sensors and its functions are described here.

Static Capacitive Sensor Type 1
In this type, one electrode is responsible for each pixel and measures the capacity compared to the neighbor electrode/pixel (inter pixel measurement). The capacity, in turn, is dependent on the dielectric. If a pixel is on a groove (i.e. air), the capacity is substantially smaller than on a finger line (ridge). In this case, the dielectric is water, which is distinguished by a very high dielectric
constant. The measurement of capacity is static in the sense that charging happens with fixed charge units and then voltage is measured.
Static Capacitive Sensor Type 2
In this type, One electrode per pixel is used, but the capacity is measured between pixel and ground, whereby the conductivity of the fingers does not play an insignificant role. The capacity measurement is in principle the same as in type 1.
Dynamic Capacitive Sensor
Here the capacity is measured by AC voltage. Inter pixel and pixel to ground measures can also be used in this type.
Luminescent Capacitive Sensor
An electroluminescent foil with a transparent back electrode uses the finger at its front side as counter electrode. At the points where the finger ridges touch the foil surface, the field strength is largest, as a result of this, the light emission brightest. That way a glowing image of the ridge structure develops at the back side of the foil.
Optical Reflexive Sensor
Here, the finger lies on a prism surface. Where the finger ridges touch the glass, a total reflection of light inside of the glass is disturbed. This will supply a picture of the finger lines to a camera chip.
Optical Transmissive Sensors with fiber optical plate
Here a suitable light source illuminates through the finger. The finger lies directly on a fiber optical plate, which, in turn is directly connected to a camera chip. The fiber optical plate ensures that the finger does not touch the camera chip, nevertheless the light arrives at the camera chip without losing focus.
Optical Contactless Sensor
The finger surface is directly acquired by a camera chip. The fingerprint area needs no contact to a plate.

Acoustic (Ultrasound) Sensors
Here a picture of the finger surface on the glass is recorded by very high frequency ultrasound (The frequency is order of 50 MHz).

Pressure Sensitive Sensors
With pressure sensors, the pressure per pixel of the finger is measured.

Thermal Line Sensors
With these sensors, the finger is moved linearly over a narrow array of thermal sensors, similar to sensors for opening automatic doors on a larger scale. The thermal sensors register temperature differences over time, which vary between the finger lines and grooves.

Capacitive and Optical Line Sensors
These sensor arrays work similar to thermal line sensors. Instead of temperature differences of time, the single sensors cells measure the capacity or the light, respectively, to build the image.
The fingerprint recognition is based on the minutiae. Successively recorded fingerprints are never identical, rather are at best highly 'similar' due to differences in finger position, application pressure, finger angle, dirtiness, and the physiological constitution of the user. The measure of similarity is given a score. The higher this score, the more similar the fingerprint, and vice versa. During the matching process in minutia based systems, one tries to minimize the influence of positioning and angle discrepancy, and incidentally size variations (in order to calculate out the effects of growth until around 18 years). The actual picture is adjusted and rotated with respect
to the reference picture until the distance between minutia is minimized.

The resulting similarity score, then depends on the following:
Number of minutia in agreement
Exactness of the positioning agreement
Degree of agreement of the minutia directions
Type of minutia agreement (line ending versus branching)
All values will be weighted with the picture quality near a minutia

Basically one can say that few, but very strongly matching minutia can receive a similar score as a case with many, but weakly matching minutia.
I think you are ready to start your project on Fingerprint authentication system

Finger print authentication (Basics)

Finger print authentication
Now a days, there are number of technologies have emerged to meet out the security aspects. In this series, fingerprint authentication plays a major role. Fingerprints differs person to person which can be used in security systems.
For example the fingerprints are used for the following applications
PC access, PC network access and Access to rooms (key replacement), Safety on weapons: no access for children and other unauthorized users, Mobile phones: network access, theft protection, mobile financial transactions, ID: company pass, personal identification, club ID, Credit cards, bank cards, EC cards Automobile: Seats, mirrors, temperature, and other personal settings Automation of hotels (e.g., check-in and room access) Company vending machines (soft drinks) Participation in sporting events Personal access to patient records Almost all the fields have need of the usage of this technology.
The fingerprint of one person differ from another one with respect to the following Coarse features (loops, arch, whorls), Fine features (minutia), and Pore structure Coarse features have strong genotypic contributions and are suited for presorting during an identification with a very large data base.
The minutia are predominantly
randotypic in nature and cause most of the uniqueness in a fingerprint. Therefore, either directly or indirectly, almost all fingerprint systems examine minutia. Pore structure is rarely used, due to large fluctuations in the quality of the scanning procedure.
The most prominent way to recognize a fingerprint is to compare the minutiae. These are the endings and the branching of the finger lines.

Sunday, February 8, 2009

Carbon calculator to reduce and offset carbon dioxide

Carbon calculator to reduce and offset carbon dioxide :
Whether we know or not, either directly or indirectly, Carbon Dioxide is added into the atmospheres by driving our cars, heating our homes and flying to a holiday destination and so on. If there is a suitable method available to calculate the emission of Carbon level per year, it will be better for us to reduce these emissions and offset what's left. There is a specific website provide for measuring the carbon footprint. There is a specif group called as carbon advice group which is working on reduce the effect of carbon footprint in the atmosphere. Once we join in this group we can become the partner of this green revolution.

We can obtain the Offset of our Carbon Footprint, with a certificate, car windscreen permit-style sticker, Green luggage labels and window displays which can be demonstrated to our Green Credentials to your friends, family, colleagues, customers and suppliers.
Be an Environmental Entrepreneur and take part in the Green Revolution.

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Friday, February 6, 2009

Harvest cheap energy from solar balloon

Harvest energy from solar balloon

As the conventional energy sources are going to exhaust very soon, the best alternative is the green technology like solar, wind energy harvesting so on. In this series, the Solar power harvesting has become more popular which is replacing the conventional energy harvesting. But it is too expensive while used commercially with high efficiency. In order to make it more efficient, solar light can be concentrated over the solar panels or cells of small area to convert into more electricity with respect to sunlight. Normally mirrors are used for concentration of sunlight to focus on solar cells. But this seems to be very costly and require more area.
Cool Earth Solar of Livermore, California, has invented a novel technique in order to better harvest solar energy with cost effective method. Yes, The new technology is the use of solar balloon. The solar balloon is a aluminized party balloons with one side transparent facing the sunlight. The solar cell is placed inside the solar balloon on which the sunlight is focused. The inner surface of the coated half of the balloon will act as a concave mirror. Now the balloon has become a cheap solar energy concentrator. Let the technology be the future cheap commercial energy source.

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Tongue Control System for Disabled

Tongue Control System for Disabled
The technology never fails to help the disabled. Here the Scientists from Georgia Tech University hope have effectively using the ability to the mouthy muscle and turn it into a computer control pad. This computer controlled tongue power system could transform a disabled person's mouth into a virtual computer, teeth into a keyboard and tongue into the key that manipulates it all.
In the figure shown, the palatal plate (placed on a mould of the upper part of the mouth) with inductive coils and a silicone tube leading the wires out of the mouth. Right: The activation unit glued to the tongue

Their prototype Tongue drive system allows the disabled to manipulate wheelchairs by moving their tongue around their mouth, manage home appliances and control computers. The disabled have particularly high hopes that the tongue could prove the most effective.
The control system maps the motion of the user’s tonque to specific computer mouse or keyboard commands. The commands may be of left, right, forward, backward, single click and double clicks.
Compared to other control systems like tracking of eye movement are promising, they can be costly, slow and susceptible to mixed signals, this system is more cost effective and flexible.
The features of tongue control system are more flexible, sensitive and tireless option. And like other facial muscles, its functions tend to be spared in accidents that can paralyse most of the rest of the body, because the tongue is attached to the brain, not the spinal cord.

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