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Wednesday, February 20, 2008

ROBOT CONTROL USING PC VIA MICROCONTROLLER

ROBOT CONTROL USING PC VIA MICROCONTROLLER
Modern science has grown by leaps and bounds in the century. Man has expanded his horizon beyond the natural environment by devising means to protect himself and by making machines for operating in extreme conditions to meet varied demands and necessities.

Recent development in Robot technology has made its presence in evitable in the industry. Robots are being endowed with more capabilities such as rudimentary sensory perceptions and advanced technology for artificial intelligence and decision making An Embedded system is typically a microprocessor or micro controller based system, which is designed into another piece of equipment to perform a specific preprogrammed task. The user can see the video image and can command the robot do to the particular task. as the robot is like a human being it can move in all direction according to the output from the user. the coding for the control and operation of the robot is written in assembly language, which is converted in ASCII code via the Top view programmer into the 8051 chip.

REMOTE CONTROL OF OVERHEAD CRANE

This project entitled “REMOTE CONTROL OF OVERHEAD CRANE” has been developed for remote operation of overhead crane using Radio Frequency, and this project over comes the present day draw backs of OH crane.

In case of overhead crane, the entire crane structure will be enclosed inside a large room. In industries such cranes are used for carrying tons and tons of loads. The loads to the crane are normally very far from the operator’s view. Thus this project helps the operator to be near the load, by providing remote operation

For such a remote operation microcontroller ATMEL 89S52 has been preferred due to its special features. In this system, the microprocessor continuously scans for any key press from the matrix key pad. As soon as the microcontroller recognizes the key press it generates a code corresponding to the key which has been pressed.

Then the encoded code is modulated and transmitted through the transmitter section. At the receiver section the demodulated code is multiplexed to the corresponding motor which controls the direction and movement of the OH crane.

SMS BASED PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM

SMS BASED PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM
Monitoring the patient’s condition can be done by using biomedical telemetry method where there is a mobile communication between microcontrollers. The temperature, heart beat and blood pressure are all sensed by using the appropriate sensors which are placed near the patient’s body that is under investigation.
The biomedical telemetry system consists of temperature sensor, heart beat sensor, pressure sensor, A/D converter, signal conditioning circuit, microcontroller, data cable, mobile phone, LCD display.
The temperature sensor is used to sense the temperature value of the patient’s body .The sensed output is given to A/D converter where the analog signal is converted to digital signal. The digital output is given to microcontroller. The microcontroller delivers the signal for mobile phone through data cable. Then the signal is transmitted to other mobile through GSM network. The receiver mobile receives the signal and it is given for a PC. The signal from data cable is given to PC and the value gets displayed using monitor.
The pressure sensor is used to sense the pressure value of the patient’s body .The sensed output is given to A/D converter where the analog signal is converted to digital signal. The digital output is given to microcontroller. The microcontroller delivers the signal for mobile phone through data cable. Then the signal is transmitted to other mobile through GSM network. The receiver mobile receives the signal and it is given for a PC. The signal from data cable is given to PC and the value gets displayed using monitor.
Heart beat can be sensed by using heart beat sensor which is then given to a signal conditioning circuit. This unit delivers a train of pulses to microcontroller and the value gets displayed using LCD display.

Tuesday, February 19, 2008

VIBRATION SENSING AND MONITORING

VIBRATION SENSING AND MONITORING
In practical, right from electrical appliances used in homes to complex machines used in industries, vibrations are produced that need to be deduced for process monitoring and analysis. It serves for both domestic and industrial purposes. Earlier manual labour was used to sense these vibrations. Later on technological changes brought hydraulics and pneumatics into play which was tedious and fetched high costs. Then electrical sensors were used for this but still cost and size mattered a lot. Overcoming all these disadvantages came the latest electronic sensors and circuits which are economical and efficient. In this project we have taken the task of Sensing, Monitoring and Analyzing the vibrations produced in a process with the help of a simple efficient external circuit. The project includes variety of components such as a Piezo electric Sensor, an Amplifier, A/D converter, Seven segment display, Monostable multivibrator and Buzzer. The piezo resistive picks up the external vibration into the circuit as electric variations. The amplifier amplifies it to match the impedance of the circuit. The amplified electric variations are quantized within a self calibrated range and unit. The output is displayed by a seven segment display and threshold limit by a buzzer. Thus, the vibrations can be both detected and analyzed simultaneously which can definitely be a successful approach in future.

DIGITAL IC TESTER

DIGITAL IC TESTER
An Integrated Circuit tester (IC tester) is used to test Integrated Circuits (ICs). Any digital IC can be easily tested using this kind of an IC tester. For testing an IC, different hardware circuits for different ICs are needed; like a particular kind of tester for testing a logic gate and another for testing flip flops or shift registers which involves more complication and time involved will also be more. So here’s an IC tester to overcome this problem. This IC tester is more reliable and easier since the need to rig up different kind of circuits for different kind of ICs is avoided, each time they are tested. Unlike the IC testers available in the market today which are usually expensive, this IC tester is affordable and user-friendly. This IC tester is constructed using 8951 microcontroller along with a keyboard and a display unit. It can test digital ICs having a maximum of 24 pins. Since it is programmable, any number of ICs can be tested within the constraint of the memory available. This IC tester can be used to test a wide variety of ICs which includes simple logic gates and also sequential and combinational ICs like flip-flops, counters, shift registers etc. It is portable and easy to use.

GPS Applications

GPS (Global Positioning System) devices available today are navigational tools used to find specific location data, and are many times more accurate than any previous system known to man. GPS watches, in particular, use twenty-seven satellites and a huge network of technical computers to calculate the user's location (latitude and longitude) to within a few meters. When using GPS watches it's very easy to keep track of your current location and speed and the direction and distance to your destination.

GPS watches can program your route in advance and they can save and chart your trips from previous data. You can store all of the coordinates of interesting vacation locations, and you can retrace your steps back to your starting point. GPS watches have become a prerequisite for the mountain climber and avid hiker. Because of the valuable properties of this watch, millions of dollars have been saved searching for lost sportsmen. Even in terrain with no landmarks, or in conditions of low visibility, you will know exactly where you are and how to get to your destination. GPS watches are becoming known as the hiker's bible. It has made this sport easier and much safer. GPS watches are also being used by scientists, farmers, surveyors, soldiers, delivery drivers, dispatchers, sailors, fire-fighters and lumberjacks. People from all walks of life are using GPS watches in different ways to make their work more productive, safer and easier. GPS watches combine an altimeter, barometer, thermometer and compass with the GPS functions. All of these components are packed into a single watch. Your watch can plan your routes from home while looking at a map, and then save them into your watch. When out in the field, your watch will tell you which way to go and how fast you are moving. It will tell you how far you have traveled and how far you still have to go. It even tells you when you will be arriving at your destination. You can designate a "home" position and then when you hit the "find home" button from any location, you will receive the route and the distance back. When you go on an adventure without a route in mind, you can use this watch to keep track of your position, speed and distance. But, most importantly, you will able to find your way back to where you started from. Getting lost is not even an option with this watch. What's more incredible is that when you find a place of interest, such as a camp site, scenic view, fishing spot or even a fabulous antique store, you can save the coordinates into your watch. GPS watches are single navigational computers, and have created adventure for the seasoned sportsman and seasoned shopper, simply by a flip of the wrist.

Friday, February 15, 2008

AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER

AUTOMATIC PHASE CHANGER
Automation plays a predominant role in the modern scientific world. Automatic phase changer finds application in small offices, residences where single phase equipments are used during phase failure, this unit automatically take the available phase lines and distribute to the non-available phase lines.The circuit is built around a transformer, comparator, transistor &relay. Three identical sets of the circuit, one for each of three phases are used .The power supply provided to the transformers is stepped down which is rectified by the diodes and filtered by a capacitor to produce the operating voltage for OP-AMP. Depending upon the voltage at the output of IC the relay gets energized or de-energized and with this phase can be choosed. Using Automatic phase changer we can operate all our equipment even when the voltage in any of the phase exceeds the rating of the equipment.

LONG RANGE FM TRANSMITTER

LONG RANGE FM TRANSMITTER
This project deals with FM TRANSMITTER, which provides a highly efficient output signals. In present scenario Fm transmitters are used in place of AM transmitters for a city wide transmission. This transmitters are widely used due to the fact that it has a very high quality signal transmission. We have a designed a practical circuit which can be incorporated anywhere for transmission Fm signals By using tank circuit the frequency modulation is done i.e. the amplitude and the phase of the signal remains constant only the frequency is altered in accordance with the signal. Since the carrier wave frequency which is of the range MHz so there is no interference with the stray signals which is of range from Hz to KHz. Therefore the operating range is quite higher than AM transmitter.

OPTICAL ENCODING DEVICE FOR CRITICAL SPEED MONITORING

Life in 21st century is almost impossible without automation and control. It is the present need of the hour. Gone are the days where accuracy alone is given prime importance. It is quintessential that accuracy combined with speed is the mantra for success. Ordinary speedometers days have left their way and now it has paved way for the digital speedometers. This has the advantage of both accuracy along with style. So keeping this in mind, we dedicated ourselves to the quest of digital speedometers. But this has been specially equipped with a safe mode which can also be known as efficiency mode. Making use of the display drivers, latching IC’s and counters IC’s along with the timer IC’s which has been integrated with the transducer section. Thus the basic principle revolves around an infrared LED which revolves in a periodic manner and it is transmitted through a photo-transistor through which a voltage is produced and it is converted into its respected display image. Under the consideration of the safe mode condition, when the speed goes beyond a particular limit a buzz goes on through which the rider is being cautioned. This has been a special up gradation to the digital speedometer.

Thursday, February 14, 2008

AUTOMATIC WATER PUMP CONTROLLER

AUTOMATIC WATER PUMP CONTROLLER

The automatic water pump controller is used to control the water pump motor. The motor gets automatically switched on when water in the overhead tank (OHT) falls below the lower limit. Similarly, it gets switched off when the tank is filled up. Built around only one NAND gate IC (CD4011), the circuit is simple, compact and economical. It works off a 12V DC power supply and consumes very little power. The circuit can be divided into two parts: controller circuit and indicator circuit. The controller circuit is one which is used for the purpose of controlling the water pump action. When the water level reaches a maximum level the motor turns off and when the water level goes below the minimum level the motor turns on automatically.
This circuit consists of a NAND gate IC (4011), three transistors (BC547), two relays with specification 12V, 200ohm 1C/O, four resistors (1K), two diodes (1N4001). The indicator circuit is one which is used to indicate the level of water inside the tank. Depending upon the number of LEDs that glow we can determine the level of water inside the tank. This circuit consists of five LEDs, five NPN transistors (BC547), ten resistors (1K). So, from the glowing of LEDs, one can determine the water level in the tank. This device is very much useful to curb the overflow of water in overhead tanks which in turn favours conservation of water. With further advancements, it can be used to check the level of water in dams.

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED FAN

TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED FAN
Temperature controlled fan is a circuit employed to vary the speed of the fan with respect to the surrounding temperature . If the room temperature decreases (increases), the speed of the fan automatically reduces (increases). To accomplish the control over the temperature, we employ a rectifier to convert the input ac current to the dc current, a linear potentiometer to control the resistance of the thermistor which in turn changes the input voltage of the transistors. The transistors act as control circuit and generates required signal for the SCR and based on this signal applied to the SCR, the speed of the fan varies. Thus by using minimum number of components we are able to achieve the required temperature control by varying the speed of the fan correspondingly. This model, along with a fan arrangement is used in central processing unit of the computer to prevent the over heating of the CPU. It can also be used in heating applications by reversing the circuit operation.

REAL TIME TEMPERATURE CONTROL BY VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION

REAL TIME TEMPERATURE CONTROL BY VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION

All the industrial application processes are mainly dependent on temperature variations .We need to maintain a constant temperature or temperature pattern throughout the process. The manual methods employed are mostly inaccurate and time consuming which can be made accurate by automating the manual temperature controls. These automated methods are efficient and highly productive when compared with manual methods. This is mainly achieved by the use of computer and aided circuits and soft wares. There are many ways to carry on this in which we have selected the method of implementing virtual instrumentation principles. Here we depict a real time temperature control of a chamber consisting of a medium (air or water) using virtual instrumentation software namely, LABVIEW. Project’s basic circuitry comprises of a heating chamber, a heater, a computer with lab view installed for controlling and a temperature transducer for measurement and feedback purposes. The LABVIEW v8.0 is selected as it is a completely platform independent, highly emulating, real time monitoring and control software.

ACCIDENT PREVENTION BY OBSTACLE DETECTION AND SPEED CONTROL OF VEHICLES

ACCIDENT PREVENTION BY OBSTACLE DETECTION AND SPEED CONTROL OF VEHICLES

This project is concerned with prevention of road accidents by obstacle detection and speed control of vehicles. Accidents can be minimized by maintaining a specific distance between the vehicles. The IR sensor, which is attached to the moving vehicle, which detects any obstacles or vehicles which appear within the preset distance. The output of the sensor is used to activate a relay. On activating the relay, automatic speed control programming is performed by the microprocessor and manual operation is performed otherwise. A stepper motor interfaced with the microprocessor effects the change of gear according to the program thereby reducing the speed of the vehicle.

Monday, February 11, 2008

ULTRASONIC RANGE DETECTOR USING PIC

ULTRASONIC RANGE DETECTOR USING PIC
The Ultrasonic range meter detects a reflected wave from the object after sending out an ultrasonic pulse. By measuring the time which returns after emitting a sound wave, a distance to the object is measured. This range meter uses the ultrasonic frequency of about 40 kHz. The way of measuring measures the time which the ultrasonic returns from the measurement object. The transmission period of the ultrasonic is controlled using timer. All of those controls are done by the software of PIC16F873. When using the capture feature of PIC, this circuit is not indispensable. The sound wave propagation speed in air is changed by the temperature. At 0 deg., it is 331.5 m per sec. At 40 deg., it is 355.5m per sec. From the time measured, the distance of the object can be calculated using the relation between speed and distance. We make use of ultrasonic sensors to perform distance measurement. This sensor separates into the two kinds for the transmitter and the receiver. In this measurement the range of the Ultrasonic Range Detector can be increased to find many applications in various fields

REAL TIME BIOMEDICAL MONITORING SYSTEM

REAL TIME BIOMEDICAL MONITORING SYSTEM
The conventional methods to monitor the heartbeat has number of issues to deal with. Even the commercial wireless technology being employed has more complications and is offline. In this project, a generic real-time wireless communication system has been designed and developed for short and long term remote patient-monitoring applying wireless protocol. The primary function of this system is to monitor the temperature and heart beat of the patient and the data collected by the sensors are sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller transmits the data over the air. At the receiving end a receiver is used to receive the data and it is decoded and fed to microcontroller, which is then displayed over the LCD display. If there is a dangerous change in patient's status an alarm is also activated.

ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL

ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL
An adaptive traffic control system was developed where the traffic load is continuously measured by loop detectors connected to a microcontroller-based system which also performs all intersection control functions. Intersection controllers of an area are interconnected with a communication network through which traffic load and synchronization information is exchanged. As a result, the duration and relative phases of each traffic light cycle change dynamically. The new architecture is completely distributed and eliminates the need for a central computer to individually control traffic lights. For the basic function of the system only the intersection controllers are required. The connection of the central computer is needed only for system surveillance and for traffic data collection and storage.

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