RFID Reader Module, are also called as interrogators. They convert radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to Controllers, which can make use of it. RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies, but the most common and widely used & supported by our Reader is 125 KHz.
An RFID system consists of two separate components: a tag and a reader. Tags are analogous to barcode labels, and come in different shapes and sizes. The tag contains an antenna connected to a small microchip containing up to two kilobytes of data. The reader, or scanner, functions similarly to a barcode scanner; however, while a barcode scanner uses a laser beam to scan the barcode, an RFID scanner uses electromagnetic waves. To transmit these waves, the scanner uses an antenna that transmits a signal, communicating with the tags antenna. The tags antenna receives data from the scanner and transmits its particular chip information to the scanner.
The data on the chip is usually stored in one of two types of memory. The most common is Read-Only Memory (ROM); as its name suggests, read-only memory cannot be altered once programmed onto the chip during the manufacturing process. The second type of memory is Read/Write Memory; though it is also programmed during the manufacturing process, it can later be altered by certain devices.
The RFID tag consists of a powered or nonpowered microchip and an antenna. The three different types of tags are described below.
Passive tags are the simplest, smallest and cheapest version of an RFID tag as they do not contain a built-in power source and consequently cannot initiate communication with a reader. As the available power from the reader field diminishes rapidly with distance, passive tags have practical read ranges that vary from about 10 mm up to about 5 metres.
Semi-passive tags have built-in batteries and do not require energy from the reader field to power the microchip. This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels and act over greater distances.