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Tuesday, July 29, 2008



Reliable automatic recognition of persons has long been an attractive goal. As in all pattern recognition problems, the key issue is the relation between inter-class and intra-class variability. Objects can be reliably classified only if the variability among different instances of a given class is less than the variability between different classes. For example in face recognition, difficulties arise from the fact that the face is a changeable social organ displaying a variety of expressions, as well as being an active 3D object whose image varies with viewing angle, pose, illumination, accoutrements and age. Against this intra-class (same face) variability, inter-class variability is limited because different faces possess the same basic set of features, in the same canonical geometry.
Among the physiological characteristics, iris patterns have a wonderful and abundant structure and full of complex textures. The coloured part of the eye contains delicate patterns that vary randomly from person to person, offering a powerful means of identification. These patterns are well protected from the external environment and can not be stolen, copied, stored or imitated. Although small (11 mm) and some times problematic to image, the iris has the great mathematical advantage, that its pattern variability among different persons is enormous. As a planar object, its image is relatively insensitive to angle of illumination. Iris begins to form in the third month of gestation and the structures creating its pattern are largely complete by the eighth month and remain stable throughout the life.

Saturday, July 26, 2008


It is very essential to have a robot during disaster conditions like Earthquake or Bomb blast, where we have to identify live human beings as quickly as possible to save life. This project is all about making a robot, which navigates around the disaster areas and tries to find the humans who need help. After finding the humans it transmits the location to the PC. The second part is the receiver and the PC.

The receiver receives the signals sent by the robot and feeds it to the PC. The PC tracks the robot and displays the current location of the robot and the location of the detected humans in the searched areas. The robot can easily navigate through rough terrain without getting stuck since it can detect obstacles and avoid collision with them. With each turn it makes, the robot communicates its position to the PC. The robot uses two methods to detect a human, one is using the IR radiation emerging from the live humans and the other is using the sound or cry for help made from the humans. The communication with the robot is used to trace the robot on screen by showing the path followed by the robot in coloured lines. The presence of human is denoted by a small coloured circle in the path. Using the map on the screen the location of the human can be approximately found and recued in time.

Thursday, July 24, 2008

A unique learning network for career advancement with Cisco Certification

A unique learning network for career advancement with Cisco Certification

There has been a boom in computer field since a long time. Most of the people prefer computer field for their job career and growth. It gives confidence in sustaining their job as well as updating knowledge in their career. In particular the networking technology is a broad field which is forever shining. Though some computer fields are not long lasting, Network technology has been becoming a potential area for growth in career advancement.
Next thing that strike our mind is, where do I get a standard course which offer courses in networking and provide a certificate that is in particularly in an International standard? There are a lot of online computer courses offered in all fields, but does not give a certification with International standard. But there is always a unique solution for anything, for networking also a unique solution that is offered by Cisco.
Cisco Learning Network offers Certification courses in the Networking technology. Cisco certification is very standard and internationally accepted by reputed companies. A lot of job opportunities are available anywhere in the World with its unique certification.
Cisco certification programs are offered in varies levels like entry level, associate, professional, expert and specialist levels in networking.
In addition to offering mentioned programs, by joining the Cisco Learning Network, we can browse the complete online technical resources and also participate varies events offered by them.
We will get satisfaction as if we do a professional certification program upon the result of training, outcome of completion of training.
In addition to all the features, we can join with other IT professionals to advance our IT career and participate in exciting conversations about advancing our career by discovering more about the future of networking technology.
Last but not the least, Cisco Learning Network connect all the people in IT field and also i can call otherwise it is a Cisco Social Learning Network for IT people.

Sponsored by Cisco

A new avatar in windows operating system - Windows Vista

A new avatar in windows operating system - Windows Vista

I have been using windows XP since for a long time. Every time I have to update service packs for each updates. But after the release of the Windows Vista operating system by Microsoft with its Windows vista business & Windows vista ultimate products, by going through its lot of new features, I have a second thought to upgrade my operating systems to Windows vista. I have been facing problems with convention windows operating systems, so I would like to share the features like its Compatibility, security, searching features, and customer service and support. At the same time, its look is also very attractive and pleasant to work with it. I would like to describe the main features as below.
Windows vista is very compatible with upcoming software like Adobe, Autodesk, Avanquest, CA, Corel, Intuit, McAfee, Sage, Symantec, and Trend Micro—and thousands of others Windows Vista and hardware like 77,000 printers, cameras, speakers and other devices and components. Its market share with other companies is huge and I can predict that it will dominate and become a leading marketer in the operating systems platform.
Enhancement in its Security futures is another era of its milestone. Windows vista is built in with Windows defender software. It completely removes spyware and malware.
Customer service:
Microsoft ‘s new Windows Vista Small Business Assurance Program offers free customer support with one-on-one coaching from Microsoft to help ensure a smooth transition from XP to Vista.

It also safeguards our precious data with new backup and restore centre.

We always like changes in technology and features, so this is right time to have a change from Windows XP to Windows Vista for pleasant working as well as technology updates.We can also work with full satisfaction.

Sponsored by Windows Vista

Monday, July 21, 2008

Fuzzy based Boiler Control

Fuzzy based Boiler Control
Automation system vendors, universities, research centers and the process industry continually strive to invent new and better methods to keep processes under control. Boiler plays an important role in power generation units and its control is very critical in many applications. In present situation conventional PID control is being implemented for this purpose. These conventional controllers in power plants are not very stable when there are fluctuations and, in particular, there is an emergency occurring. Continuous processes in power plant and power station are complex systems characterized by nonlinearity, uncertainty and load disturbances.

The characteristics of a power plant system change significantly between heavy and light loading conditions. Applying of traditional control methods encounter great difficulties while the process working condition changes within a large operation range. So many studied control methods like expert systems, fuzzy logic control, neural networks and knowledge-based systems, termed Intelligent Control have become common additions to conventional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)-type control methods in the process industry. This project discusses the possibilities and suitability of an intelligent control method such as fuzzy logic control in controlling and managing combustion performance of an Industrial boiler. This controller demonstrated superiority in controlling the temperature and water level of the boiler.
In this project It has been designed a model with fuzzy control implemented for temperature and level control. The model consists of a process tank along with a reservoir together with a pump and heater connected with it. This heater and pump are controlled using fuzzy logic and the temperature and level conditions are maintained.

Boiler is the zone of interest.The boiler parameters are temperature, level, flow and pressure. These parameters are being sensed by the corresponding sensors RTD, Float, Proximity sensor and Diaphragm type pressure sensor respectively. Sensed signal is not compatible with the PC hence necessary signal conditioning (amplification, linearization, etc.,) is provided to obtain the signals in the range of 0-5 V.
The next step is the conversion of these analog signals to digital signals and this is accomplished through ADC.These digital signals simultaneously enter the PC via parallel port. Controlling of these signals is done using fuzzy logic in matlab. Here the real time input signal is compared with the set value and the difference is converted to analog through the DAC and then is given to the control circuitry (heater control and pump control). The control circuitry consists of a TRIAC which switches on and off the heater and pump according to the decision taken by the Fuzzy logic controller. Isolation is provided in the control unit for protection of the circuit as well as the personnel involved.

Saturday, July 19, 2008

RFID Module and Principle of working

RFID Module and Principle of working

RFID Reader Module, are also called as interrogators. They convert radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can be passed on to Controllers, which can make use of it. RFID tags and readers have to be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate. RFID systems use many different frequencies, but the most common and widely used & supported by our Reader is 125 KHz.

An RFID system consists of two separate components: a tag and a reader. Tags are analogous to barcode labels, and come in different shapes and sizes. The tag contains an antenna connected to a small microchip containing up to two kilobytes of data. The reader, or scanner, functions similarly to a barcode scanner; however, while a barcode scanner uses a laser beam to scan the barcode, an RFID scanner uses electromagnetic waves. To transmit these waves, the scanner uses an antenna that transmits a signal, communicating with the tags antenna. The tags antenna receives data from the scanner and transmits its particular chip information to the scanner.

The data on the chip is usually stored in one of two types of memory. The most common is Read-Only Memory (ROM); as its name suggests, read-only memory cannot be altered once programmed onto the chip during the manufacturing process. The second type of memory is Read/Write Memory; though it is also programmed during the manufacturing process, it can later be altered by certain devices.

The RFID tag consists of a powered or nonpowered microchip and an antenna. The three different types of tags are described below.

Passive tags are the simplest, smallest and cheapest version of an RFID tag as they do not contain a built-in power source and consequently cannot initiate communication with a reader. As the available power from the reader field diminishes rapidly with distance, passive tags have practical read ranges that vary from about 10 mm up to about 5 metres.

Semi-passive tags have built-in batteries and do not require energy from the reader field to power the microchip. This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels and act over greater distances.

Wednesday, July 16, 2008

RFID technology

Radio Frequency Identification Technology

Basics: (Source: Wikipedia)

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders.

An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

Most RFID tags contain at least two parts. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a (RF) signal, and other specialized functions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. Chipless RFID allows for discrete identification of tags without an integrated circuit, thereby allowing tags to be printed directly onto assets at a lower cost than traditional tags.


Automation plays an important role in Industries. Apart from this, Automation has also made the domestic life easier. There are lots of advantages like saving man power, higher accuracy in work; quick process etc. apart from this automation also leads to the technological improvement of the country. The developing as well as developed countries needs technology not only in industries also in domestic life. The safety systems in home, automation in home also plays a big role in countries development towards technology. In this project, RFID technology is used for automating the public distribution of sugar, rice, kerosene etc. It is completely safe and secured way of delivering food stuffs to the people who get it through PDS. In particular in developing countries, 90% of the people depending on PDS for getting their goods like rice, wheat, sugar, kerosene etc. It is purely a society oriented project which helps the people to get right amount of commodities from the Ration shop.

Monday, July 14, 2008

Fuzzy based control of Induction motor for Diagnosis

There are many existing techniques and commercial tools available to monitor induction motors to ensure high degree of reliability. In our project information on the health state of the motor is obtained by processing motor operating parameter such as voltage, stator line current, temperature etc.

In recent trends, artificial intelligence techniques (neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithm) are increasingly used in monitoring and detecting faults in electric machines. Such techniques require a minimum of intelligent configuration without any modeling.

This project describes the application of fuzzy logic approach to the diagnosis of induction motor. A fuzzy logic–based system allows the transformation of heuristic terms into numerical values via fuzzy rules and membership functions. When conducting fault diagnosis, several situations may occur in which an object is not obviously “good” or “bad”, but may fall in between.

Considering that the interpretation of the condition of the induction motor as a fuzzy concept, fuzzy logic – based diagnosis approach can be developed which enables decision making to be made based on vague information. Fuzzy system relies on a set of rules.
This system might refer intermediate condition such as “little overload”, “some what secure condition”. Furthermore, the fault type determined by applying the fuzzy rules is a good indicator to evaluate the influence of motor load level on the occurred fault.

The concept of fuzzy logic (FL) was conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, a professor at the University Of California at Berkley , and presented a way of processing data by allowing partial set membership rather than crisp set membership or non - membership. This process is continued until the neural network can simulate the entire set of input-output values.Once the neural network is ready, it can be used to determine the membership values of any input data in the different fuzzy membership funtions or classes hence the crisp input is fuzzified.

This approach to set theory was not applied to control systems until the 70’s due to insufficient small-computer capability prior to that time. Professor Zadeh reasoned that people do not require precise, numerical information input, and yet they are capable of highly adaptive control.
If feedback controllers could be programmed to accept noisy imprecise input, they would be much more effective and perhaps easier to implement.

Friday, July 11, 2008



The main objective of this project is to detect and diagnose Induction motor faults using fuzzy logic principles. Induction motors are most widely used electrical apparatus in modern industrial application due to their reliability, low cost and high performance.

Hence detection and diagnosis and diagnosis of such faults is very essential for protection of induction motors against failures and permanent damages. In recent years, the monitoring and fault detection of electrical motors have moved to artificial intelligent techniques from traditional methods.

Such techniques require a minimum of intelligent configuration, since no detailed analysis of fault mechanism is necessary and no modeling required. The healthy state of Induction motor are indicated by associated current and voltage parameters.

And therefore this Fuzzy approach monitors current and voltage for diagnosis under different operating condition. In contrast to other conventional methods, this project would reduce time and energy required. This method can be extended to any type of electrical motors, big or small.

This project describes the application of fuzzy logic approach to the diagnosis of induction motor. A fuzzy logic–based system allows the transformation of heuristic terms into numerical values via fuzzy rules and membership functions.

When conducting fault diagnosis, several situations may occur in which an object is not obviously “good” or “bad”, but may fall in between. Considering that the interpretation of the condition of the induction motor as a fuzzy concept, fuzzy logic – based diagnosis approach can be developed which enables decision making to be made based on vague information.

Tuesday, July 8, 2008

Engineering Projects sites

Engineering Projects sites
Regularly i am updating websites which provide and promote engineering projects. In this series, i have visited two websites today. One projectguidance and another one engineering projects. These two sites interacts engineering project for final year their degree programmes.

In project guidance, while registering the site, we can submit our engineering projects and also share project with other users and at the same time we can also obtain the project of our interest by request. There are lots projects discussing on embedded systems, Robotics, DSP based projects, AVR projects and so on.

In Engineering projects website, they give ideas on engineering projects in wide areas of interest which are latest in the day to day science life. In this website, in addition to all above projects, Wireless technology related projects also been discussed.

Saturday, July 5, 2008

Trafffic Control Systems with Zigbee wireless controller

Traffic Control Systems with Zigbee wireless controller
Zigbee wireless controller has emerged a new wireless technology which can consists of Zigbee wireless sensors as receiver as well as a transmitter. These sensor can be detected at a distance of 100m. This technology can be effectively used in traffic control systems.
Normally in traffic control, there will be a traffic police who controls the green, red and yellow signals according to the vehicle traffic. If there is no traffic police, some traffic junction will have only have timer enabled signals which will not be effective in traffic signal controls.
Here, we can use the Zigbee wireless sensors in the traffic sides, which will sense the traffic density and can be sent the detected signals to a central controller.
The sensed traffic density can be analysed using a microcontroller or FPGA kit, so that according the density in each of directions, the control signals can be generated. In this way we can generate accurate control signals for green, red and Orange (yellow).
This type of control can also be used to control the signals during emergency or VIP vehiles passing on the signal junctions.

Some of the other features of Zigbee controller(as switch)

A ZigBee Relay Controller is a device that is capable of wireless remote contact closure switching. ZigBee offers wireless serial communications, making it possible to remotely operate a switch using very short serial commands. A ZigBee Modem is required for wireless computer controlled switching. A ZigBee Modem plugs into the USB port of your computer and emulates a Com Port (also known as a virtual COM port). Your software simply opens the serial port and sends a few bytes of data. The ZigBee Modem handles all wireless communications to and from the remote device.

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