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Thursday, June 26, 2008

Basics of IR transmitter and receiver

Basics of IR transmitter and receiver
Transmitter and receiver are commonly used in Engineering projects for remote control of objects. In particularly, in Robotic system uses tranmitter and receiver. Here i would like to describe the basics if IR transmitter and receiver

Basics of IR transmitter

An electroluminescent IR LED is a product which requires care in use. IR LEDs are fabricated from narrow band heterostructures with energy gap from 0.25 to 0.4 eV. Infra red transmitter emits IR rays in planar wave front manner.
Eventhough Infra red rays spreads in all directions, it propagates along straight line in forward direction. IR rays have the characteristics of producing secondary wavelets when it collides with any obstacles in its path. This property of IR is used here.
When IR rays gets emitted from LED, it moves in the direction it is angled. When any obstacle interferes in the path, the IR rays get cut and it produces secondary wavelets which propagates mostly in return direction or in a direction opposite to that of the primary waves, which produces the net result like reflection of IR rays


Basics of IR receiver.
Infrared photo receiver is a two terminal PN junction device, which operates in a reverse bias. It has a small transparent window, which allows light to strike the PN junction. A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Most photodiodes will look similar to a light emitting diode. They will have two leads, or wires, coming from the bottom. The shorter end of the two is the cathode, while the longer end is the anode.

A photodiode consists of PN junction or PIN structure. When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron thereby creating a mobile electron and a positively charged electron hole. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in field of the depletion region. Thus holes move toward the anode, and electrons toward the cathode, and a photocurrent is produced.

2 comments:

Cine Perk said...

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applelohelson said...

I have faced a case where some pair of IR receiver failed to receiver signal. But some are actually passed. would it caused by the frequency or wave length??

Receiver:
Frequency: 30kHz- 40kHz
relative wavelength: 890-990 nm

emitter:
Freq: 36.1kHz to 39.9kHz
Wave Length: 750- 1150 nm

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