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Monday, May 26, 2008

Fuzzy logic control of Temperature and level control

Fuzzy logic control of Temperature and level control

Automation system vendors, universities, research centers and the process industry continually strive to invent new and better methods to keep processes under control. Boiler plays an important role in power generation units and its control is very critical in many applications. In present situation conventional PID control is being implemented for this purpose. These conventional controllers in power plants are not very stable when there are fluctuations and, in particular, there is an emergency occurring. Continuous processes in power plant and power station are complex systems characterized by nonlinearity, uncertainty and load disturbances. The characteristics of a power plant system change significantly between heavy and light loading conditions. Applying of traditional control methods encounter great difficulties while the process working condition changes within a large operation range. So many studied control methods like expert systems, fuzzy logic control, neural networks and knowledge-based systems, termed Intelligent Control have become common additions to conventional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)-type control methods in the process industry. This project discusses the possibilities and suitability of an intelligent control method such as fuzzy logic control in controlling and managing combustion performance of an Industrial boiler. This controller demonstrated superiority in controlling the temperature and water level of the boiler.
In this project, a model with fuzzy control has been implemented for temperature and level control. The model consists of a process tank along with a reservoir together with a pump and heater connected with it. This heater and pump are controlled using fuzzy logic and the temperature and level conditions are maintained.

The simulation of fuzzy logic contrlloller is implemented using matlab fuzzy toolbox

Friday, May 23, 2008

Realtime object tracking systems Introduction

Realtime Object tracking systems

A picture speaks a thousand words, videos tens of thousands. Of all the senses man is endowed with, it is unquestionably the sense of vision that feeds the brain with the most amount of information. Not surprising therefore, is the amount of interest evinced in the field of computer vision by researchers all over the world. Despite promising developments taking place by day, one of the biggest challenges impeding an even more rapid progress in the field of computer vision is the challenge of processing in real-time, the “ten of thousands of words” generated by video sequences. Voluminous data notwithstanding, several key applications and industries are today turning to computer vision systems in search of efficient solutions to myriad problems. One such application that has tremendous potential is tracking.
The objectives of a tracking system must be
To track without regard to the environment, i.e. without imposing restrictions on the background/foreground
To track without requiring extensive a priori knowledge about background
To track target objects in the presence of similar objects in the vicinity
To track despite occlusions
To not require anything more than general purpose computing hardware i.e. a desktop personal computer.
The applications of such a tracking system include:
Autonomous Robotics – Robots in dynamic environments need to be able to interact with other moving objects. The ability to avoid collisions via motion estimation would allow robots to work freely in a changing environment
Automotive - In the quest to produce autonomous vehicles the first and foremost task is to sense moving objects around the vehicle and then to determine the speed and distance of the object. A visual tracking system can thus be of immense help to gauge the path in the case of such vehicles.
Surveillance - A camera could become a watchful eye over a shopping mall or airport. By integrating a tracking system and a facial recognition system, scans can be run electronically round the clock. Systems could possibly identify unwanted intruders or known felons from databases of thousands of images more quickly.
Education – With current emphasis on videotaping classroom lectures for broadcast, it creates resource challenges by way of requiring a cameraman to be present during all lectures. This can be avoided by using an automated system with an active camera. By tracking the teacher’s position in the class, the active camera could be used to keep him in focus wherever he moves.
Entertainment – In a virtual environment a computer could witness and interact with a user’s movements. Arcade games could accommodate the movement of their opponents by changing their screen or strategy to suit. One could dual against a machine without the need for external sensors attached to the body or motion with a hand to indicate a particular course of action to take.
Military experts have for long held that the best camouflaging systems fail when the target is in motion. While the human mind may overlook a stationary camouflaged object, the moment the object begins to move, it reveals itself. The brain processes information in such a way that even small changes in the field of view are immediately obvious. Thus, motion estimation and motion processing in general seem to be a vital part in the way the brain processes visual information. It was felt that we would do well to implement a tracking system on similar lines – using the properties of motion. Subsequent chapters deal with the tracking system in more detail.

Wednesday, May 21, 2008

Programming with PLC

Programming with PLC

Early PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietary programming panels or special-purpose programming terminals, which often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLC programs. Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory capacity. More recently, PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a

personal computer, then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC.
The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory but now the program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory.
Early PLCs were designed to be used by electricians who would learn PLC programming on the job. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Another method is State Logic, a Very High Level Programming Language designed to program PLCs based on State Transition Diagrams.
Recently, the International standard IEC 61131-3 has become popular. IEC 61131-3 currently defines five programming languages for programmable control systems: FBD (Function block diagram), LD (Ladder diagram), ST (Structured text, similar to the Pascal programming language), IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language) and SFC (Sequential function chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations.
While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers, differences in I/O addressing, memory organization and instruction set mean that PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.

Engineering Projects on Embedded systems

Engineering Projects all in one site
Embedded projects related with microcontroller kits, VLSI kits, DSP kits are all the todays need for engineering aspirants. 8051, PIC series, ARM processors are some of the embedded controllers normally used for engineering projects. In this series ARM processors are latest one. All these kits are available with relevent manuals in Pantech solutions.

In addition to above all, this company provide solutions for VLSI related hardware and softwares like Xilinx Spartran III FPGA development boards, ALtera boards, CPLD kits according to our project requirements.
Applications of these kits can be used for controlling motors, automation controls, Robotics controls and so on.
In addition to these mentioned kits, it also provide solutions for PWM inverter, Resonance converter and DC DC choppers.

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

Entrecard with new features

Entrecard with additional features
We are all familiar with ATM and Credit cards with real world. But entrecard is the card known by the internet community. I am proud of being entrecard member for the past 6 months. It really enriched my site value in terms of traffic and money. Initially only one blog can be kept in our account, for adding new blog, we need another account.But now the trend is changed by the entrecard, we can have more blogs with one account with its linked blog feature. With this feature, I have added 4 more blogs to my account. In addition to this, entrecard have announced contest for entrecard account holder who have more number of blogs. I sum up the following features newly added,· Ebook release· Multiple blogs to an account· Blog post contest win 2000 entrecards· Multiblog contest win 15000 entrecards· New home page looks· New campaign page· Top droppers RSS feed.They have also unveiled a new ebook to know all about entrecard with its features.

Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Labview and Virtual Instrumentation

Labview and Virtual Instrumentation

Most of the technololgy related articles that i have been posting are only related with Microcontroller, VLSI technology, Robotics, Matlab and Embedded systems. While i am searching in latest tech, i got this topic i.e. Labview and Virtual instrumentation. This is new for most of the engineering tech students or candidates, but this is an another emerging field particularly for engineering students.

I would like to discuss on the usage and development of virtual instruments ( instruments which are not physical instruments but accessible and reconfigurable through pc)and the intergration of PC based test and control systems, including the software (Labview software) used to develop PC based test and control systems, the hardware used in such systems and other useful technology involved.

Virtual instruments are graphical instruments which are accessible only through PC. These instruments behave like real instruments like ammeter, voltmeter, measuring instruments and all sort of instruments used in the instrumentaion field.

In order to configure and use these instruments Labview software is available. It is like a matlab software where instruments are availabe as model which can be connected as if a real instruments are connected. Display is also available. e.g. LED with different colors.

All sort of programming can be done with this software in order to complete a circuit like real experiments. Input to the circuit can be given really to the Labview environment through data acqusition card. I will discuss more on this and also get more info by my latter posts.

Saturday, May 10, 2008


PLCs are well-adapted to a certain range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations in ladder logic (or function chart) notation. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of mass-produced goods, customized control systems are economic due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands of sales.
Some modern PLCs with full capabilities are available for a few hundred USD. This allows them to be economically applied on very small control problems. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. For example, a consumer dishwasher would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities.

A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies and input/output hardware) can be spread over many sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. (However, some specialty vehicles such as transit busses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomic.)
Very complex process control, such as used in the chemical industry, may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. Very high speed controls may also require customised solutions; for example, aircraft flight controls.
PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a "proportional, integral, derivative" or "PID controller." A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process, for example. Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops; where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops, a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. However, as PLCs have become more powerful, the boundary between DCS and PLC applications has become less clear-cut.

Trafficera in the Human traffic with clock race and token system

Trafficera in the Human traffic with clock race and token system

Trafficera a new era in promoting websites. Human traffic is main motto of this site.

Trafficera is really amazing website for promotion of our blogs and websites. It has many features like time credits for surfing others websites. If we browse more websites, then more time credits which in turn increases our personal value (our value in the website, it is like ranking). In the clock race once we invlove, then the result is really amazing. There are millions of trafficera members in the race.
Token system is another reward awarded by this site. More token means more value for you.We can have team members of our own or join with other team members. Groups are also available in varies categories, we can join any of our favourite groups.
While browsing, we can discuss or chat with other team members, so that we cab effectively using our browsing time while downloading pages.
Free signup are initially awarded as silver members and we can also upgraded to platinum or gold. By referals also we can earn credits. We can also buy or sell time credits to other members and earn cash. Another features are we can sell or by credits earned by us and also we can advertise our splash pages in order to increase our traffic.

Wednesday, May 7, 2008

PhD level writing, editing and proofreading service by PhD Works

PhD level writing, editing and proofreading service
Are you a Ph.D., Under graduate or Post graduate candidates, are you in the process of writing your report or thesis work, This is right and best site to get your writing works. Writing, editing and proof reading are art of a students at higher level study. These services are offered by the Ph.D. works website where you can give your requirements of any of your field, it will be done this website.
Once you have done your hardware part and your are in the submitting stage of thesis, but your are struggling to write report or thesis or dessertation, the service provider give full support and help for completing your dessertation in right time. The company offer economic term paper for the students of all levels. Sample desseration are also available on topics Marketing dessertation and some their blogs offer dessertation on Master desseration
The features of PhD works are
* Highly-qualified PhD level writing, editing and proofreading service.
* providing custom written dissertations, theses, courseworks, etc for students of all levels.
* Their assignments are used for students as a samples for research purposes.
Theses assignments will help students to write their own A+ work.
* Articles and website content can also be professionally written by the company.

Tuesday, May 6, 2008

AUTOMATION USING A PLC with applications


PLCs are electronic devices that work on the basic principle of logic gates. It was a major leap from sequencing automation with rotating cams or with series of electrical relay switches, to using micro processor based PLC sequencers. With micro processors, the sequencers could be programmed to follow different sequences under different conditions.
The physical structure of a PLC is as important as a feature as its computerized inwards. The central component, the CPU, contains the digital computer and plugs into a bus or a rack. Other PLC modules can be plugged into the same bus. Optional interface modules are available for just about any type of sensor or actuator.
The PLC user buys only the modules needed, and thus avoids having to worry about compatibility between sensors, actuators and the PLC. Most PLCs offer communication modules now, so that the PLC can exchange data with at least other PLCs of the same make.

Automated parking is a method of automatically parking and retrieving cars typically using a computerized system of lifts and carriers. As the system removes the need for driveways and ramps, the floor area and the volume of the parking station itself can be more efficiently used.
For the driver, the process is very simple. They park their car at an entrance point then leave the vehicle. From there, the car is automatically moved through the parking system. It's returned to the driver in the same fashion using a signaling device (similar to a credit card) or for a public car park a ticket and payment system in a designated waiting zone.
Automated parking systems can be designed to fit above or below ground, allowing for flexible usage of land space; this means the footprint can be reduced to one-third of the land required by conventional car parking solutions. Cost-effective on a number of fronts, automated parking also offers significantly improved service to the customer.

These automated car parking systems are suitable for installation in basements, open floors or open spaces outside commercial buildings, residential buildings, shopping malls, and other public places. Such multi-level automated car parking systems have been installed all around the world, especially in Europe, Korea, Japan and some other parts of South-East Asia.
There is an overwhelming need for these systems because of increasing traffic and non-availability of adequate parking spaces, especially in urban cities. The most unique feature of such systems is that they increase the parking space available on the ground by more than 30%, depending upon the kind of system installed and the contours of the space available.
Multi-level parking systems require careful planning and assessment of the space available, traffic flows, and the capacity utilization within that space. These systems can be integrated within concrete (RCC) structures.

Pay per post review

Pay Per Post Review

Pay per post is a special website and called as blog network where we get paid for review of other websites or blogs posts. Plenty of Opportunities are available for review and chances are more for earning. I started to review for the past 6 months and earning. I earned lot of friend by signup in this website

I could see my google page rank, alexa rank and real ranks from my account by using this site. And also my website traffic have improved manyfold.

I also included the pay per post for advertiser and blogger ppp tools in this page. By signing in this page a lot of benefits we can obtain.

GPS Insight and Explore GPS Vehicle tracking

GPS basic:
The Global positioning system (GPS) is satellite based navigation systems that orbit the earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location by made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit. GPS works for any works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world , 24 hours per day. The result is provided in the form of geographic position, longitude and latitude to, from most receivers withing 100 meters

For vehicle tracking, GPS devices are commonly used, these devices are fitted in the vehicle for monitoring. I recently searching many sites on this topics and visited an amazing GPS related project site. This site called as GPS insight vehicle tracking which gives full insight about GPS and related devices. The devices offered by this is easily installabe and take very short duration for complete tracking of vehicle. In this device, recent technology updation and mapping are possible. The advantages of the GPS insight are they charge only 1.5 to 2 doller per day per vechicle and no more labor paid when people are not really working on fuel saving routing efficiencies.

Another thing is to get complete documentation which will be offered by this site through its GPS Insight support wiki for customers, which gives full technical support for their customers.

Blogs for GPS vehicle tracking is also available where full technical articles related to GPS vehicle tracking systems are discussed broadly . We can also participate on the blogs and get information and posting comments.

The target users are service and trucking companies, e.g. HVAC, roofing, plumbing, construction, sales forces, delivery vehicles, long haul trucking, etc.

GPS Insigt

Monday, May 5, 2008



“One man can do the work of a hundred ordinary men, but no machine can do the work of an extra-ordinary man.”
In this fast developing science revolutionary era, automation of industry has become a necessity. A PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) is a programmable system used for automation. The Programmable Logic Controller may be defined as

“A PLC is a microprocessor based specialized computer that carries out control functions of many types and levels of complexity.”

We have designed a kit for automating a car parking system. For this a PLC has been used. The PLC has been pre-programmed and is the brain of the system. It reads the inputs from the various sensors and makes logical decisions. Accordingly the necessary operation is carried out. In case of occurrence of a failure, the protective measure is also taken. Our project illustrates only a simple application of the PLC, while the PLC is a powerful tool the applications of which are innumerable and complex.

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