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Thursday, January 31, 2008


Energy meter, the only direct revenue interface between utilities and the consumers, have undergone several advancements in the last decade. In this project we provide a scheme of electricity billing system called "SMART ENERGY METER" which reduces the problems associated with billing consumer living in isolated area and reduce the man power for taking meter readings. The consumer has to just insert the memory card of desired amount into the card reader and the amount will be detected depending upon the consumption. Microcontroller acts as the primary controller and collects information from the energy meter and the smart card. It then compares both the information and controls the relay accordingly. The relay is connected between the power lines and the load. If the available credit is exhausted, the supply is automatically cut off by the relay. As a future enhancement, the clients can be networked and the whole power supply control can be given to the server in the electricity board.

Automatic Railway tracking system with stepper motor control

The project involves automatic track switching in railways using stepper motor control. The project is designed to avoid railway accidents happening at unattended railway gates, if implemented in spirit. This project utilizes a powerful IR transmitter and a receiver. Two sensors are placed at either sides of the junction where the track switches. If there’s a train approaching from the other side, then the sensor placed along that direction gets activated and will send an interrupt to control the motor. The interrupt service routine switches the track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions. Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. Assuming that within a certain delay, the train has passed the track is switched back to its original position, allowing the first train to pass without any interruption. This project can be further extended to automatic railway gate control.

Wednesday, January 23, 2008


One of the biggest challenges in constructing a robot lies in the control of its motors. In this project we use a PIC 16F84A microcontroller to control the stepper motors of the wheels.
The robot is mounted on a three motorized swedish or spherical wheels arranged in a triangle to make omnidirectional movement possible. Two target points are initially taken and the robot is made to move towards one of them depending on the input selection. An array of proximity sensors are used for detecting the obstacles.
By controlling the stepper motors, the robot is made to move in a tangential direction to the obstacle. The algorithm is written in such a way that the microcontroller checks the proximity sensors after a specified time delay. This is done in order to maneuver the robot again towards the target. This subroutine is employed whenever an obstacle is encountered till the robot reaches the target point.
A metal detector is mounted on the robot to detect the metals present in the way. This robot is used in various industrial applications such as terrestrial, underground and space explorations, navigation in hazardous environments and in military operations. Enhancements can be done by adding a series of modules on this robot for other specific purposes.


This project provides a security system using embedded concept that could be incorporated in our life. The circuit consists of two mobiles, one is a user mobile and another is a receiver mobile. The receiver mobile is connected to the microcontroller through an RS232 interfacing circuit and a data cable. Then the received serial data will be converted into parallel by using EMBEDDED PROGRAMMING CONCEPT. The received data will be in the format of AT PROTOCOL. That is, the micro controller should send AT commands to receive the data from a mobile. Then the received signal is decoded and final extraction of the data will be displayed. That is the content of sms are displayed in a microcontroller is written with a program to work according to the SMS message. By using this concept we are going to implement some applications like theft detector, flame detector etc.
One more main security in this project is to get a secured communication for the proof of security we have to use password or we can compare the incoming number and if it matches with the actual one then it will allow the user to control the device. The communication between microcontroller and the mobile’s is at the BAUD RATE OF 9600 BITS per second.

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